References on Triangulation

This is a list of references on triangulation (combining one of more research methods) After a brief introduction which suggests those works which are essential reading for newcomers to the field, the list is organized into two parts: the first part lists some important citations related to the approach in other disciplines (including the source disciplines), the second lists citations related to the approach in Information Systems. You can use the Edit Find command in Netscape to look for a specific citation.

Please send additional references and/or short abstracts of items on this page (maximum 50 words) to the Section Editor at:

[Introduction] [Citations in Other Disciplines] [Citations in Information Systems]


There is much debate amongst qualitative researchers regarding the issue of triangulation. A good starting point in IS is the article by Kaplan and Duchon (1988).



Citations in Other Disciplines

Burrell, G. and Morgan, G. Sociological Paradigms and Organisational Analysis, Heinemann, London, 1979.

Ragin, Charles C., The Comparative Method: Moving Beyond Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies, Berkeley and London: University of California Press, 1987.



Citations in Information Systems

Gable, G., "Integrating Case Study and Survey Research Methods: An Example in Information Systems," European Journal of Information Systems, Volume 3, Number 2, 1994, pp. 112-126.

Kaplan, B. and Duchon, D. "Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Information Systems Research: A Case Study," MIS Quarterly (12:4) 1988, pp. 571-587.

Lee, A. S. "Integrating Positivist and Interpretive Approaches to Organizational Research," Organization Science, (2), 1991, pp. 342-365.

Markus, M.L., "Electronic Mail as the Medium of Managerial Choice," Organization Science, Volume 5, Number 4, 1994, pp. 502-527.


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Revised: February 05, 2004

This work was published in MISQ Discovery on May 20, 1997. This is the original archival version. It is currently maintained by Michael D. Myers. Corrections, clarifications, and suggested modifications should be directed to him at Serious problems should be referred to the Editor-in-Chief.