General References on Qualitative Research

This is a list of general references on qualitative research (and not related to any specific method). After a brief introduction which suggests those works which are essential reading for newcomers to the field, the list is organized into two parts: the first part lists some important citations related to the approach in other disciplines (including the source disciplines), the second lists citations related to the approach in Information Systems. You can use the Edit Find command in Netscape to look for a specific citation.

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[Introduction] [Citations in Other Disciplines] [Citations in Information Systems]


There are two books which are essential reading for anyone wanting to do qualitative research; both these books are required or recommended texts in many doctoral-level courses in Information Systems. The two books are Miles and Huberman (1984) and Denzin and Lincoln (1994).

In Information Systems, an important article is the one by Orlikowski and Baroudi (1991), which provides an excellent summary of the differences between positivist, interpretive, and critical research, and surveys some of the research done in IS. One of the most cited empirical examples of qualitative research in Information Systems is the article by Markus (1983). For a more in-depth look at the different methods being used by Information Systems researchers, the books edited by Galliers (1992), Mumford et al. (1985) and Nissen et al. (1991) are excellent. The latter two books were published under the auspices of the IFIP Working Group 8.2.



Citations in Other Disciplines

Berger, P. and Luckman, T. The social construction of reality: a treatise in the sociology of knowledge, Penguin Publishers, London, 1967.

Bogdan, R.C. and Taylor, S.J. Introduction to qualitative research methods: A phenomenological approach to the social sciences, Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1975.

Bryman, A. Research Methods and Organization Studies, Unwin Hyman, London, 1989.

Burrell, G. and Morgan, G. Sociological Paradigms and Organisational Analysis, Heinemann, London, 1979.

Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y.S. (eds.). Handbook of Qualitative Research, Sage, Thousand Oaks, 1994.

This book is a collection of readings with authors selected from many disciplines. The handbook examines the various paradigms for doing qualitative work, the strategies developed for studying people in their natural setting, and a variety of techniques for collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and reporting findings.

Deslauriers, J.P., Recherche qualitative: Guide pratique, Montréal: Mc Graw Hill, 1991.

Dufour, S., Fortin, D., and Hamel, J., L’enquête de terrain en sciences sociales: L’approche monographique et les méthodes qualitatives, Montréal: Éditions St- Martin, 1991.

Guba, E.G. and Lincoln, Y.S. "Competing paradigms in qualitative research," in Handbook of Qualitative Research, N.K. Denzin and Y.S. Lincoln (eds.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, 1994, pp. 105-117.

Kirk, J. and Miller, M.L. Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, California, 1986.

Lessard-Hebert, M., Goyette, G., and Boutin, G. Recherche qualitative: fondements et pratiques, Montréal: Agence d’ARC, 1990.

Lofland, L., Analysing social settings: A guide to qualitative observation and analysis, Belmont, CA, 1971.

Miles, M.B. and Huberman, A.M. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Sourcebook of New Methods, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA, 1984.

Morey, N.C. and Luthans, F. "An Emic Perspective and Ethnoscience Methods for Organizational Research," Academy of Management Review (9:1), January 1984, pp. 27-36.

Ragin, Charles C., The Comparative Method: Moving Beyond Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies, Berkeley and London: University of California Press, 1987.

Silverman, David. Interpreting Qualitative Data, Sage Publications, London, 1993.

Strauss, Anselm. 1987. Qualitative Analysis for Social Scientists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Strauss, Anselm and Juliet Corbin. 1990. Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Taylor, S.J. and Bogdan, R. (1984) Introduction to qualitative research methods: The search for meanings, New York: John Wiley.

Trudel, R. and Antonius, R., Méthodes qualitatives appliquées aux sciences humaines, Montréal: Centre éducatif et culturel inc, 1991.

Van Maanen, J. (ed.). Qualitative Methodology, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA, 1983.

Weitzman, E.A. and Miles, M.B. Computer Programs for Qualitative Data Analysis, Sage, Thousand Oaks, 1995.

Wolcott, H.F. Writing Up Qualitative Research, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, California, 1990.



Citations in Information Systems

Alavi, M. and Carlson, P. "A review of MIS research and disciplinary development," Journal of Management Information Systems (8:4), 1992, pp. 45-62.

Cash, J.I. and Lawrence, P. (eds.). The Information Systems Research Challenge: Qualitative Research Methods, Harvard Business School Research Colloqium, Boston, 1989.

Gable, G., "Integrating Case Study and Survey Research Methods: An Example in Information Systems," European Journal of Information Systems, (3:2), 1994, pp. 112-126.

Galliers, R. (ed.). Information systems research : Issues, methods, and practical guidelines, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1992.

Galliers, R.D. and Land, F.F. "Choosing Appropriate Information Systems Research Methodologies," Communications of the ACM, (30:11), 1987, pp. 900-902.

Kaplan, B. and Duchon, D. "Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Information Systems Research: A Case Study," MIS Quarterly (12:4) 1988, pp. 571-587.

Kaplan, B. and Maxwell, J.A. "Qualitative Research Methods for Evaluating Computer Information Systems," in Evaluating Health Care Information Systems: Methods and Applications, J.G. Anderson, C.E. Aydin and S.J. Jay (eds.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 1994, pp. 45-68.

Lacity, M.C. and Janson, M.A. "Understanding Qualitative Data: A Framework of Text Analysis Methods," Journal of Management Information Systems (11:2), Fall 1994, pp. 137-155.

Lee, A. S. "Integrating Positivist and Interpretive Approaches to Organizational Research," Organization Science, (2), 1991, pp. 342-365.

Mumford E., Hirschheim, R.A., Fitzgerald, G. and Wood-Harper, A.T. (eds.). Research Methods in Information Systems, North-Holland Publishers, New York, 1985.

Nissen, H-E., Klein, H.K. and Hirschheim, R.A. (eds.). Information Systems Research: Contemporary Approaches and Emergent Traditions, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991.

Orlikowski, W.J. & Baroudi, J.J. "Studying Information Technology in Organizations: Research Approaches and Assumptions", Information Systems Research (2) 1991, pp. 1-28.

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Revised: February 05, 2004

This work was published in MISQ Discovery on May 20, 1997. This is the original archival version. It is currently maintained by Michael D. Myers. Corrections, clarifications, and suggested modifications should be directed to him at Serious problems should be referred to the Editor-in-Chief.